HonB. Fast track courses offer an accelerated assessment turnaround time which allows students the opportunity to move through the course at a faster pace. Repeat or upgrade courses are intended for students who wish to improve their grades in courses they have already successfully completed. This course enables students to deepen their understanding of physics concepts and theories. Students will continue their exploration of energy transformations and the forces that affect motion, and will investigate electrical, gravitational, and magnetic fields and electromagnetic radiation.
Students will also explore the wave nature of light, quantum mechanics, and special relativity. They will further develop their scientific investigation skills, learning, for example, how to analyse, qualitatively and quantitatively, data related to a variety of physics concepts and principles.
Students will also consider the impact of technological applications of physics on society and the environment.
Students will review concepts essential to their success in the course: scientific notation, significant digits, vector operations, and fundamental mathematical tools. Principles of kinematics and free body diagrams will also be reviewed and extended.Schannel fatal alert 42 36887
By the end of the unit, students will demonstrate and understanding of the forces involved in uniform circular motion and motion in a plane. They will have investigated forces involved in these modes of motion and have solved related problems.
They will analyse technological devices that apply the principles of dynamics of motion, with particular respect to the effect of g-forces on the human body. Students will demonstrate an understanding of work, energy, momentum. Drawing from Grade 10 concepts of the laws of conservation of energy, they will extend these ideas to conservation of momentum in one and two dimensions. Through computer simulation and other modes of inquiry they will investigate these phenomena and solve related problems.
They will conduct analyses and propose improvements to technologies and procedures that apply principles related to energy and momentum, and assess the social and environmental impact of these. By the end of this unit, students will demonstrate an understanding of the concepts, properties, principles and laws related to gravitational, electric and magnetic fields, particularly with respect to their interactions with matter.
They will investigate these phenomena graphically and through use of other electronic models. They will analyse the operation of technologies that use these fields, and discuss the social and environmental impact of these technologies. Building upon concepts developed during Grade 10, students will study light with particular respect to its wave nature. Properties of waves will be discussed in a general sense, and the principles of diffraction, refraction, interference and polarization will be investigated theoretically and through simulation.
Technologies that make use of the knowledge of the wave nature of light, and their social and environmental impacts, will be discussed. In this unit, some of the most exciting and counterintuitive concepts in physics, including Einstein's ideas about relativity, photoelectric effect, and particle physics, will be examined.
Quantum mechanics and special relativity will be investigated mathematically and related problems will be solved. In light of the revolutionary ideas studied in this unit, students will discuss how the introduction of new conceptual models can influence and change scientific thought, and lead to the development of new technologies.
The over-riding aim of this course is to help students learn science and apply their knowledge and skills. Course writers effectively use language skillfully, confidently and flexibly.
Effective instructional approaches and learning activities draw on students' prior knowledge, capture their interest, and encourage meaningful practice.This is one of the longest running chemistry webpages on the internet. Each month since January a new molecule has been added to the list on this page. The links will take you to a page at one of the Web sites at a University Chemistry Department or commercial site in the UK, the US, or anywhere in the world, where useful and hopefully entertaining!
If you wish to contribute a Molecule of the Month page, just email me the URL and I'll add you to the list at the next opportunity. There's generally a month waiting list, so this gives you plenty of time to write and polish your page. See here for all the details of software and helper files you require. In brief, next to each molecule name scroll down the page there will be one or more of the following buttons. Clicking each button takes you to a different version of the page, as described below.
See here for a list of the awards and citations received by this page and a disclaimer. Above is a drop-down alphabetical list of all the molecules. Click on your molecule of choice to take you directly to it in the chronological table below. Paul May and Simon Cotton have compiled a set of some of the most important and interesting molecules from this website, as well as many more that have never been published before, and published them as a book that you can buy from the Taylor and Francis website or from other online retailers.
Maintained by Paul May. Welcome to the Molecule of the Month page! What do I need to see the pages properly? Buy a book containing many of these molecules! Thyroxine The metabolic rate hormone that prevents 'a pain in the neck'!
Theobromine The caffeine-like alkaloid in chocolate that is good for you. Desomorphine a. Lycopene The red colour of tomatoes. Luciferin The glowing group of molecules responsible for bioluminescence. Nitrogen trifluoride The etching gas that's recently been found to be a major Greenhouse gas problem. Dimethyltryptamine DMT The so-called spirit molecule.SCH4U Orga Chem 01
Estradiol The main female hormone. Rose Bengal The pink eye stain that might be a cancer treatment. Cytisine The poisonous plant that might help people stop smoking.Aib notizie 5/99. sommario
Octane The molecule in petroleum used for car engines. Vitamin B 3 Niacin, Nicotinic acid The vitamin that prevents pellagra. Carfentanil The tranquiliser for wild game that is the most powerful commercially available opioid. Narcan Naloxone The 'miracle' antidote for opiate overdoses. Cathinone Known on the street as 'Monkey Dust'.Bubsy midi
Novichok The notorious nerve agent. Thallium sulphate Rat poison used for Murder. Ethylene glycol Ethane-1,2-diol and antifreeze poisoning. Tartrazine The controversial yellow food-colouring and dye. Ninhydrin It turns amino acids deep purple. Zingiberene and Epizingiberene It's a ginger spice!
Vitamin B 2 Riboflavin More than just a food colouring. Incensole and other molecules in frankincense, including incensole acetate.
Lariam The controversial antimalarial drug.Production of biodiesel from grape winery waste and fruit peels. The aim of this work is utilization of the grape pomace piled up as a waste after winemaking and its application in producing biodiesel. Furthermore, a novel yoghurt product was produced, enriched with antioxidants, such as polyphenolics from the grape pomace and berries in order to improve its nutritional value, contributing to food preservation and significantly reducing the risk of diseases.
In fact, for the first time we engaged these compounds in preparation of a new yoghurt product, that proved to be last - longer and more beneficial for human health than the traditional one, since the antioxidants play a great role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease, cancer etc.
Furthermore, a cost- effective, easily made and environmentally friendly biodiesel was produced, that could represent an alternative to the old fossil petroleum to replace it and resolve the present energy crisis. Totally, 4 types of Macedonian grape pomace, from Zupjanka, Prokupec, Kadinal and Vranec varieties as well as blueberry and aronia, were used.
The phenolic content of the obtained extracts was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method Ivanova et al. Afterwards, three different volumes of the obtained extracts 10, 50 and mL from each sample were concentrated by rotoevaporation to dryness. The three different concentrates of each sample were applied on milk together with the lactic bacteria in order to study the influence of polyphenolics during the fermentation; as well as, applied on milk after the fermentation into the obtained yoghurt.
In meantime, the pH value of the newly generated yoghurts was observed by using a pH meter. In the second part the seeds were separated from the grape pomace and served as a new source of oil that was to be transformed into biodiesel. Additionally, blueberry and aronia peels were used for the same purpose.
Six organic solutions ethanol, hexane, benzene, diethyl ether, acetone, acetic acid were added to the dried seeds and then filtration and distillation followed for obtaining the oil. For dividing the biodiesel transesterification reaction was applied and due to the combustion of the final product it proved to be biodiesel. All yoghurt samples containing polyphenolics applied before the fermentation, presented higher pH value compared to the control and samples with polyphenolics applied after fermentation.
Furthermore, all yoghurt samples containing highest phenolic concentration, showed best results, presenting stable pH value. Zupjanka has shown the best results pH After obtaining the yoghurt, sensory analysis was performed, stating that the new product has creamy texture; it tastes good, without unpleasant smell or bitterness. The colour of some samples turned into red-violet, excluding the yoghurt with dry extracts from: Zupjanka and Kardinal white grapes. By microbiological analysis the presence of pathogen.
Concerning the biodiesel production, the oil content, depending on the solvent used, differed from 0. During the extraction acetone and acetic acid showed better results than ethanol, which proved to be a better extractor of antioxidands.
SCH4U - EXAM REVIEW DEC '11.pdf - rhsadtaylor
Thus, acetic acid was the most proper solvent for obtaining impure biodiesel with a yield of Overall, the sample which showed the highest percentage when mixed with acetic acid was blueberry. On the other hand, from the grape pomace, the type comprising the largest amount of impure biodiesel was aronia with the average yield of Andonovic et al. Application of grape pomace as a natural food preservative and source of biofuel.
The geographic location of Republic of Macedonia, the fertile soils and optimal climate conditions are exceptional for breeding vine and specific grape varieties. But, the wine industry waste in general is a problem in Macedonia, since it does not have any usage.
In the European Union, there is approximately In fact, the wine industry waste contains primarily crushed grape skins and seeds rich in beneficial polyphenol compounds that act as antioxidants, antibacterial agents, anticarcinogenic agents, antiviral agents, etc.An understanding of bond dipoles and the various types of noncovalent intermolecular forces allows us to explain, on a molecular level, many observable physical properties of organic compounds.
In this section, we will concentrate on solubility, melting point, and boiling point. Virtually all of the organic chemistry that you will see in this course takes place in the solution phase. In the organic laboratory, reactions are often run in nonpolar or slightly polar solvents such as toluene methylbenzenehexane, dichloromethane, or diethylether. In organic reactions that occur in the cytosolic region of a cell, the solvent is of course water. It is critical for any organic chemist to understand the factors which are involved in the solubility of different molecules in different solvents.
Imagine that you have a flask filled with water, and a selection of substances that you will test to see how well they dissolve in the water. The first substance is table salt, or sodium chloride. Because water, as a very polar molecule, is able to form many ion-dipole interactions with both the sodium cation and the chloride anion, the energy from which is more than enough to make up for energy required to break up the ion-ion interactions in the salt crystal and some water-water hydrogen bonds.
The end result, then, is that in place of sodium chloride crystals, we have individual sodium cations and chloride anions surrounded by water molecules — the salt is now in solution. Charged species as a rule dissolve readily in water: in other words, they are very hydrophilic water-loving.
Biphenyl does not dissolve at all in water. Why is this?
Because it is a very non-polar molecule, with only carbon-carbon and carbon-hydrogen bonds. It is able to bond to itself very well through nonpolar van der Waals interactions, but it is not able to form significant attractive interactions with the very polar solvent molecules. Thus, the energetic cost of breaking up the biphenyl-to-biphenyl interactions in the solid is high, and very little is gained in terms of new biphenyl-water interactions.
Water is a terrible solvent for nonpolar hydrocarbon molecules: they are very hydrophobic water-hating. Next, you try a series of increasingly large alcohol compounds, starting with methanol 1 carbon and ending with octanol 8 carbons. You find that the smaller alcohols - methanol, ethanol, and propanol - dissolve easily in water. This is because the water is able to form hydrogen bonds with the hydroxyl group in these molecules, and the combined energy of formation of these water-alcohol hydrogen bonds is more than enough to make up for the energy that is lost when the alcohol-alcohol hydrogen bonds are broken up.
When you try butanol, however, you begin to notice that, as you add more and more to the water, it starts to form its own layer on top of the water. The longer-chain alcohols - pentanol, hexanol, heptanol, and octanol - are increasingly non-soluble. What is happening here? Clearly, the same favorable water-alcohol hydrogen bonds are still possible with these larger alcohols. The difference, of course, is that the larger alcohols have larger nonpolar, hydrophobic regions in addition to their hydrophilic hydroxyl group.
At about four or five carbons, the hydrophobic effect begins to overcome the hydrophilic effect, and water solubility is lost.Welcome to the Student Portal. Grad Website. Student Transportation Authority. Search this site. Catholic School Council. Business Contemporary Studies Creative Arts English Mathematics Religion Science Student Services Technology Advent Liturgies - December Afro-Caribbean Mentorship Program. After School Literacy Prep Course.
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Location: Gas Laws. Vanessa Palmer. Location: 8th Grade Integrated Physics and Chemistry. Description: Just as the previous unit classified and characterized matter on the macro level, this unit does the same for atoms and molecules. Objective: To be able to describe in detail a carbonate-acid reaction. To know the test for carbon dioxide. Objective: To know the difference between a Chemical and a Physical Reaction: how to spot it and how to describe it. Objective: To know the requirements for combustion.
What a flame is. The test for water. Grade Level. High School Chemistry. Ninth grade Tenth grade, Eleventh grade, Twelfth grade 3 more High School 7, Views. High School. High School 6, Views. High School 2, Views. Tenth grade Eleventh grade 1 moreWednesday review for Assessment. Grade 12 Exam Revision Button below:. Grade 12 work on the calculations of enthalpies, bond energies and hess' law from the study guide.
Claire will be away at PD at the University of Toronto. Please send your final results to:. Substitute Teacher July 23 and Make sure to open the link below and go over the the course outline with the students. I will go over the evaluation process when I get back. Welcome to our school, where educational and social development go hand in hand.
Application of Grape Pomace as a Natural Food Preservative and Source of Biofuel
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