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Cronica Item Preview. EMBED for wordpress. Want more? Advanced embedding details, examples, and help! Edizione di riferimento: Nuova Cronica, a cura di G.
Versione e-book tratta dalla serie di CD-ROM "La letteratura italiana Einaudi" o "La grande letteratura italiana Einaudi" delparzialmente pubblicata come biblioteca online sul sito letteraturaitaliana. This e-book edition was released online for free by the publisher. There are no reviews yet. Be the first one to write a review. Folkscanomy: A Library of Books.
Additional Collections.The Nuova Cronica or New Chronicles is a 14th-century history of Florence created in a year-by-year linear format and written by the Florentine banker and official Giovanni Villani c. The idea came to him after attending a jubilee celebration in the city of Rome, where he realized that Rome's many historical achievements were well-known, and he desired to lay out a history of the origins of his own city of Florence.
He also described several disasters such as famines, floods, fires, and the pandemic of the Black Death that took his life in Giovanni Villani's Cronica is divided into twelve books; the first six deal with the largely legendary history of Florence, starting at conventionally Biblical times to Notable passages. And the said people being assembled in Florence, the host set forth in the end of August, and for pomp and display they led out the carroccio, and a bell, which they called Martinella, on a car with a wooden tower on wheels, and there went out nearly all the people with the banners of the guilds, and there did not remain a house or a family in Florence which went not forth on foot or on horseback, at least one for each house, and for some two or more, according to their power.
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And when they found themselves in the territory of Siena, at the place agreed upon, on the river Arbia, at the place called Montaperti, with the men of Perugia and of Orvieto, which there joined with the Florentines, there were gathered together more than 3, horse and more than 30, foot.
And whilst the host of the Florentines was thus preparing, the aforesaid framers of the plot, which were in Siena, in order that it might be the more fully accomplished, sent to Florence certain other friars to hatch treason with certain Ghibelline magnates and popolani which had not been exiled from Florence, and would therefore have to join the general muster of the army.
With these, then, they plotted that when they were drawn up for battle, they should from divers quarters flee from their companies, and repair to their own party, to confound the Florentine army. And this plot they made because they seemed to themselves to be but few in comparison with the Florentines; and so it was done. Now it happened that when the said host was on the hills of Montaperti, those sage Ancients who were leading the host, and had managed the negotiations, were awaiting the opening of the promised gate by the traitors from within.
A magnate from among the people, a Florentine from the gate of S. Piero, which was a Ghibelline, and was named Razzante, having heard something of the expectation of the Florentine host, was commissioned by consent of the Ghibellines in the camp which were meditating the treason, to enter Siena; whereupon he fled on horseback from the camp to make known to the Florentine refugees how the city of Siena was to be betrayed, and how the Florentines were well equipped, and with great strength of horse and foot, and to urge those within not to advise battle.
And when he was come unto Siena, and these things had been disclosed to the said M. Farinata and M. Gherardo, the plotters, they said thus to him: "Thou wilt slay us, if thou spreadest this news throughout Siena, inasmuch as fear will fall upon every man, but we desire that thou shouldest say the contrary; for if we do not fight while we have these Germans we are dead men, and shall never return to Florence, and for us death and defeat would be better than to crawl about the world any longer:" and their counsel was to try the fortune of battle.
Razzante, instructed by these two aforesaid, determined and promised to speak thus; and with a garland on his head, on horseback with the said two, showing great gladness, he came to the parliament to the palace where were all the people of Siena and the Germans and other allies; and then, with a joyful countenance, he told great news from the Ghibelline party and the traitors in camp, how the host was ill-ordered and ill-led, and disunited, and that if they attacked them boldly, they would certainly be discomfited.
And Razzante having made his false report, at the cry of the people they all moved to arms, calling out: "Battle, battle.
When those among the host which were expecting that the gate should be given to them saw the Germans and the other horse and foot sally forth towards them from Siena in battle array, they marvelled greatly, and were sore dismayed, seeing their sudden approach and unlooked-for attack; and they were the more dismayed that many Ghibellines who were in the host, both on horse and foot, beholding the enemy's troops approaching, fled from divers quarters, as the treason had been ordered; and among them were the della Pressa and they of the Abati, and many others.
But the Florentines and their allies did not on this account neglect to array their troops, and await the battle; and when the German troop violently charged the troop of Florentine horse where was the standard of the cavalry of the commonwealth, which was borne by M. Jacopo del Nacca, a man of great valour, of the house of the Pazzi in Florencethat traitor of a M.
Bocca degli Abati, which was in his troop and near to him, struck the said M. Jacopo with his sword, and cut off the hand with which he held the standard, and immediately he died. And this done, the horsemen and people, beholding the standard fallen, and that there were traitors among them, and that they were so strongly assailed by the Germans, in a short time were put to flight.Please choose whether or not you want other users to be able to see on your profile that this library is a favorite of yours.
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The E-mail Address es field is required.This collection of literature attempts to compile many of the classic works that have stood the test of time and offer them at a reduced, affordable price, in an attractive volume so that everyone can enjoy them. Villani traveled in Flanders and France from toand from until his death he held numerous political offices in the city of Florence.
Caught up in the economic crises of the 's, Villani died of the plague in His life was devoted to commerce, politics, and the Chronicle. Giovanni now saw Rome for the first time. From on Giovanni worked intermittently at his chronicle. He framed his chronicle in customary medieval style. He began with an account of the Tower of Babel, and his first six books end with the arrival of Charles of Anjou in Italy in The next six books, however, deal only with a period of 80 years, from to In the later books Villani's interests move from the party factionalism of Florence to wider issues, such as the newly contacted lands in Asia as described by Marco Polo, and the trade, industry, and religion of Florence.
Villani also describes well-known figures from Florentine history, and his description of the poet Dante is often quoted. His Chronicle follows the medieval pattern in giving an account of events strictly year by year. But the work is also original. Villani wrote in the Tuscan vernacular, the language which Dante himself was so much to influence.
He was not, like most chroniclers, a cleric, but a layman - and a man of affairs at that. His business and political life seemed to impart to him the expertise and wide range of interests which make the Chronicle extremely readable today. He possessed an astute mind, was capable of independent observation and judgment, and was a sufficient literary artist to incorporate lively and accurate portraits of contemporaries into his work.
Giovanni's Chronicle was continued after his death by his brother Matteo and his nephew Filippo.Garmin 745
Giovanni Villani wrote a history of Florence from its origins to the age of Dante. He was the first chronicler to remark that the barbarian invasions of the later Roman Empire were a turning point in European history. Quotations: "Beholding the great and ancient things which are [in the city], reading of the great deeds of the Romans, and considering that our great city of Florence, the daughter and creation of Rome, was ascending to greatness while Rome was declining, [I decided] to bring together in this chronicle all the beginnings of the city of Florence and then to set forth in detail the doings of the Florentines.
Back to Profile. Photos Works. Main Photo. Giovanni Villani. School period Add photo. Career Add photo. Achievements Add photo. Membership Add photo.Hackintosh thinkpad dock
Awards Add photo.He was a leading statesman of Florence but later gained an unsavory reputation and served time in prison as a result of the bankruptcy of a trading and banking company he worked for.
His interest in and elaboration of economic details, statistical information, and political and psychological insight mark him as a more modern chronicler of late medieval Europe. Bartlett notes that, in contrast to his Renaissance-era successors"his reliance on such elements as divine providence links Villani closely with the medieval vernacular chronicle tradition. Villani was inspired to write his Cronica after attending the jubilee celebration in Rome in and noting the venerable history of that city.
He outlined the events in his Cronica year for year, following a strictly linear narrative format. He provided intricate details on many important historical events of the city of Florence and the wider region of Tuscanysuch as construction projects, floods, fires, famines, and plagues.
While continuing work on the Cronica and detailing the enormous loss of life during the Black Death inVillani died of the same illness. Villani's work has received both praise and criticism from modern historians. The criticism is mostly aimed at his emphasis on supernatural guidance of events, his organizational style, and his glorification of the papacy and Florence. Giovanni Villani was born into the Florentine merchant middle class. He was the son of Villano di Stoldi di Bellincione, who came from an old and well-respected arti maggiori family of merchants.
After observing the well-known ancient monuments of Rome and acknowledging its renowned historical personages, he was inspired to write the Cronicaa universal history of Florence in a strictly linear, year-by-year format. Giovanni Villani was a co-director of Buonaccorsi in Villani returned to Florence in where he married and settled down for a life of city politics. He became one of the priors of Florence in and At the same time, he participated in the crafty diplomatic tactics that resulted in peace with Pisa and Lucca.
In his Cronicahe gave a detailed account of why Florence was unable to acquire Lucca after the death of Castruccio Castracani. A famine spread across Tuscany in From to Villani was a commune -appointed magistrate of provisioning protecting Florence from the famine's worst effects.
In order to mitigate rising levels of starvation and assuage peasant discontent, grain was speedily imported from Sicily through Talamone60, gold florins were taken from the city purse by the Florentine commune to aid the relief effort, and all the city's bakers had their ovens requisitioned by the government so that loaves of bread could be sold at affordable prices to the riotous and starving poor. Villani was sent on another diplomatic mission inthis time to Bologna to meet Cardinal Bertrand de Pouget.
Hunt suggests that the firms simply lacked the resources to have made such loans, which in all probability were much smaller and were not the key reasons for the companies' failures. Villani and the Buonaccorsi had gained an unsavory reputation as early aswhen Villani was tried and cleared for barratry for his part in building the new third circuit of walls around Florence. Walter later suspended all legal actions taken against the Buonaccorsi and other company partners for nearly a year.
It is known that he was imprisoned in the Carceri delle Stinche.Kuldevi dosh
Najemy states. Villani's work is an Italian chronicle written from the perspective of the political class of Florence just as the city rose to a rich and powerful position. Only scanty and partly legendary records had preceded his work, and there is little known of events before the death of Countess Matilda in The Nuova Cronica or New Chronicles is a 14th-century history of Florence created in a year-by-year linear format and written by the Italian banker and official Giovanni Villani c.
The idea came to him after attending the first Jubilee in the city of Romeinwhere he realized that Rome's many historical achievements were well-known, and he desired to lay out a history of the origins of his own city of Florence. He also described several disasters such as famines, floods, fires, and the pandemic of the Black Death inwhich would take his own life. Giovanni Villani's Cronica is divided into twelve books; the first six deal with the largely legendary history of Florence, starting at conventionally Biblical times to Bartlett and Green [ who?
In his Cronica, Villani writes that the Guelph defeat by the Ghibellines at Montaperti in was a major setback to the historical progress of the Republic of Florence. Olson states are conservative numbers in regards to subsequent historians writing of the battle's casualties. Villani describes the rebuilding of Florence after the rebellion of one Giano della Bella; he notes that by conditions were once again in a "tranquil state". Villani relates that for the construction of the church, it was required of the Commune of Florence that a subsidy of four denari on each libra be paid out of the city treasury in addition to a head-tax of two soldi for each adult male.
According to Villani, inthe commune and people of Florence laid the foundation for the Palazzo Vecchioto replace the town hall that was located in a house behind the church of San Brocolo. Villani boasts of Florence's pristine architecture in its monasteries and churches, as well as its ornate houses and beautiful palaces.
While holding the signoria of Florence, Robert of Naples — had the eastern part of the Bargello in Florence constructed, where he had his vicar the Count of Battifolle reside. There was a famine in which not only devastated Florence, but caused the people of PerugiaSienaLuccaand Pistoia to turn away any beggars who approached their towns because they could not provide them with food. In spite of all the government did, the agitation of the people at the market of Or San Michele was so great that it was necessary to protect the officials by means of guards fitted out with ax and block to punish rioters on the spot with the loss of hands or feet.
Villani states that the commune of Florence spent more than 60, gold florins to mitigate this effects of this disaster. Villani also describes in vivid detail the effects of another widespread famine in Tuscany during the yearwhich killed an estimated 4, people in Florence a year before the Bubonic Plague.
On June 23,a fire broke out toward the left bank of the Ponte Vecchio bridge, destroying all twenty shops located on the bridge.
Villani states that by noon on Thursday, November 4,a flood along the Arno River spread across the entire plain of San Salvi.
Villani describes how the plague of Black Death in was much more widespread amongst the inhabitants of PistoiaPratoBolognaRomagnaAvignon and the whole of France than it was in Florence and Tuscany. And of eight Genoese galleys which had gone to the Black Sea only four returned, full of infected sailors, who were smitten one after the other on the return journey.For example, if the skewness (which measures the deviation of the distribution from symmetry) is clearly different from 0, then that distribution is asymmetrical, while normal distributions are perfectly symmetrical.
More precise information can be obtained by performing one of the tests of normality to determine the probability that the sample came from a normally distributed population of observations (e. However, none of these tests can entirely substitute for a visual examination of the data using a histogram (i.
The graph allows you to evaluate the normality of the empirical distribution because it also shows the normal curve superimposed over the histogram. It also allows you to examine various aspects of the distribution qualitatively. For example, the distribution could be bimodal (have 2 peaks).
This might suggest that the sample is not homogeneous but possibly its elements came from two different populations, each more or less normally distributed. In such cases, in order to understand the nature of the variable in question, you should look for a way to quantitatively identify the two sub-samples.
To index Purpose (What is Correlation. The measurement scales used should be at least interval scales, but other correlation coefficients are available to handle other types of data. Correlation coefficients can range from -1. The value of -1. A value of 0. The most widely-used type of correlation coefficient is Pearson r, also called linear or product- moment correlation. Simple Linear Correlation (Pearson r). Pearson correlation (hereafter called correlation), assumes that the two variables are measured on at least interval scales (see Elementary Concepts), and it determines the extent to which values of the two variables are "proportional" to each other.
The value of correlation (i. This line is called the regression line or least squares line, because it is determined such that the sum of the squared distances of all the data points from the line is the lowest possible.
How to Interpret the Values of Correlations. As mentioned before, the correlation coefficient (r) represents the linear relationship between two variables.
If the correlation coefficient is squared, then the resulting value (r2, the coefficient of determination) will represent the proportion of common variation in the two variables (i.
In order to evaluate the correlation between variables, it is important to know this "magnitude" or "strength" as well as the significance of the correlation. The significance level calculated for each correlation is a primary source of information about the reliability of the correlation. As explained before (see Elementary Concepts), the significance of a correlation coefficient of a particular magnitude will change depending on the size of the sample from which it was computed.
The test of significance is based on the assumption that the distribution of the residual values (i. However, Monte Carlo studies suggest that meeting those assumptions closely is not absolutely crucial if your sample size is not very small and when the departure from normality is not very large. It is impossible to formulate precise recommendations based on those Monte- Carlo results, but many researchers follow a rule of thumb that if your sample size is 50 or more then serious biases are unlikely, and if your sample size is over 100 then you should not be concerned at all with the normality assumptions.
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